Clinical Laboratory Hematology 3 Ed.

McKenzie, Shirlyn B., Ph.D. ; Williams, Lynne
Clinical Laboratory Hematology
Especialidad: Hematologia
ISBN: 9780133076011
Publicación: 2014
Idioma: Ingles

Foreword xx
Preface xxi
Acknowledgments xxv
Reviewers xxvi
Contributors xxviii
Select Abbreviations Used xxxi
SECTION ONE INTRODUCTION TO HEMATOLOGY
1 (24)
Chapter 1 Introduction
1 (6)
Overview
2 (1)
Introduction
2 (1)
Composition of Blood
2 (1)
Reference Intervals for Blood Cell Concentration
3 (1)
Hemostasis
3 (1)
Blood Component Therapy
3 (1)
Laboratory Testing in the Investigation of a Hematologic Problem
3 (2)
Summary
5 (1)
Review Questions
5 (1)
Companion Resources
6 (1)
References
6 (1)
Chapter 2 Cellular Homeostasis
7 (18)
Overview
8 (1)
Introduction
8 (1)
Cell Morphology Review
8 (2)
Cell Membrane
8 (1)
Cytoplasm
9 (1)
Nucleus
9 (1)
Cellular Metabolism: DNA Duplication, Transcription, Translation
10 (3)
Control of Gene Expression
11 (1)
Protein Synthesis and Processing
11 (1)
The Ubiquitin System
12 (1)
Tissue Homeostasis: Proliferation, Differentiation, and Apoptosis
13 (8)
Proliferation: The Cell Cycle
13 (3)
Differentiation
16 (1)
Apoptosis
16 (5)
Abnormal Tissue Homeostasis and Cancer
21 (1)
Summary
21 (1)
Review Questions
21 (2)
Companion Resources
23 (1)
References
23 (2)
SECTION TWO THE HEMATOPOIETIC SYSTEM
25 (153)
Chapter 3 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF HEMATOPOIETIC ORGANS
25 (12)
Overview
26 (1)
Introduction
26 (1)
Development of Hematopoiesis
26 (1)
Hematopoietic Tissue
27 (6)
Bone Marrow
27 (3)
Thymus
30 (1)
Spleen
30 (3)
Lymph Nodes
33 (1)
Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)
34 (1)
Lymphadenopathy
34 (1)
Summary
34 (1)
Review Questions
35 (1)
Companion Resources
36 (1)
References
36 (1)
Chapter 4 Hematopoiesis
37 (21)
Overview
38 (1)
Introduction
38 (1)
Hematopoiesis
38 (6)
Hematopoietic Precursor Cells
38 (6)
Cytokines and the Control of Hematopoiesis
44 (5)
Growth Factor Functions
44 (1)
Characteristics of Growth Factors
44 (5)
Cytokine Receptors, Signaling Pathways, and Transcription Factors
49 (3)
Cytokine Receptors
49 (1)
Signaling Pathways
50 (1)
Transcription Factors
50 (1)
Clinical Use of Hematopoietic Growth Factors
51 (1)
Hematopoietic Microenvironment
52 (2)
Components of the Hematopoietic Microenvironment
52 (1)
Hematopoietic Microenvironment Niches
52 (2)
Summary
54 (1)
Review Questions
54 (2)
Companion Resources
56 (1)
References
56 (2)
Chapter 5 The Erythrocyte
58 (19)
Overview
59 (1)
Introduction
59 (1)
Erythropoiesis and Red Blood Cell Maturation
59 (4)
Erythroid Progenitor Cells
59 (1)
Erythroid-Maturing Cells
60 (2)
Characteristics of Cell Maturation
62 (1)
Erythroblastic Islands
63 (1)
Erythrocyte Membrane
63 (5)
Membrane Composition
64 (1)
Lipid Composition
64 (3)
Membrane Permeability
67 (1)
Erythrocyte Metabolism
68 (2)
Glycolytic Pathway
68 (1)
Hexose Monophosphate (HMP) Shunt
68 (2)
Methemoglobin Reductase Pathway
70 (1)
Rapoport-Luebering Shunt
70 (1)
Erythrocyte Kinetics
70 (2)
Erythrocyte Concentration
71 (1)
Regulation of Erythrocyte Production
71 (1)
Erythrocyte Destruction
72 (1)
Summary
73 (1)
Review Questions
73 (2)
Companion Resources
75 (1)
Disclaimer
75 (1)
References
75 (2)
Chapter 6 Hemoglobin
77 (20)
Overview
78 (1)
Introduction
78 (1)
Hemoglobin Structure
79 (2)
Hemoglobin Synthesis
81 (2)
Heme
81 (1)
Globin Chain Synthesis
81 (2)
Regulation of Hemoglobin Synthesis
83 (1)
Ontogeny of Hemoglobin
84 (1)
Embryonic Hemoglobins
84 (1)
Fetal Hemoglobin
84 (1)
Adult Hemoglobins
84 (1)
Glycosylated Hemoglobin
84 (1)
Hemoglobin Function
85 (5)
Oxygen Transport
85 (3)
Carbon Dioxide Transport
88 (1)
Nitric Oxide and Hemoglobin
89 (1)
Artificial Oxygen Carriers
89 (1)
Hemoglobin Catabolism
90 (2)
Extravascular Destruction
90 (1)
Intravascular Destruction
91 (1)
Acquired Nonfunctional Hemoglobins
92 (2)
Methemoglobin
92 (1)
Sulfhemoglobin
93 (1)
Carboxyhemoglobin
93 (1)
Summary
94 (1)
Review Questions
94 (2)
Companion Resources
96 (1)
References
96 (1)
Chapter 7 Granulocytes And Monocytes
97 (25)
Overview
98 (1)
Introduction
98 (1)
Leukocyte Concentration in the Peripheral Blood
99 (1)
Leukocyte Surface Markers
100 (1)
Leukocyte Function
100 (1)
Neutrophils
100 (10)
Differentiation, Maturation, and Morphology
100 (4)
Distribution, Concentration, and Kinetics
104 (2)
Function
106 (4)
Eosinophils
110 (2)
Differentiation, Maturation, and Morphology
110 (2)
Distribution, Concentration, and Kinetics
112 (1)
Function
112 (1)
Basophils
112 (1)
Differentiation, Maturation, and Morphology
113 (1)
Concentration, Distribution, and Destruction
113 (1)
Function
113 (1)
Monocytes
113 (2)
Differentiation, Maturation, and Morphology
114 (1)
Distribution, Concentration, and Kinetics
115 (1)
Function
115 (2)
Summary
117 (1)
Review Questions
117 (3)
Companion Resources
120 (1)
References
120 (2)
Chapter 8 Lymphocytes
122 (22)
Overview
123 (1)
Introduction
123 (1)
Lymphopoiesis
124 (1)
Lineage Differentiation
125 (7)
B Lymphocytes
125 (4)
T Lymphocytes
129 (3)
Natural Killer Cells
132 (1)
Natural Killer T(NKT) Cells
132 (1)
Lymphocyte Identification and Morphology
132 (4)
Morphology of Immature Lymphocytes
133 (2)
Morphology of Activated Lymphocytes
135 (1)
Lymphocyte Distribution, Concentration, and Kinetics
136 (1)
Lymphocyte Function
136 (4)
B Lymphocytes (Humoral Immunity)
136 (1)
T Lymphocytes (Cell-Mediated Immunity)
137 (1)
Natural Killer Cells
138 (1)
Adhesion Molecules of the Adaptive Immune Response
139 (1)
Aging and Lymphocyte Function
139 (1)
Lymphocyte Metabolism
139 (1)
Summary
140 (1)
Review Questions
141 (1)
Companion Resources
142 (1)
References
142 (2)
Chapter 9 The Platelet
144 (10)
Overview
145 (1)
Introduction
145 (1)
Peripheral Blood Platelets
145 (1)
Platelet Morphology
145 (1)
Quantitative Platelet Evaluation
146 (1)
Megakaryocyte Biology
146 (5)
Megakaryopoiesis
146 (3)
Thrombopoiesis
149 (2)
Summary
151 (1)
Review Questions
151 (1)
Companion Resources
152 (1)
References
152 (2)
Chapter 10 The Complete Blood Count And Peripheral Blood Smear Evaluation
154 (24)
Overview
155 (1)
Introduction
155 (1)
Pre-Examination Phase of the CBC
156 (1)
Examination Phase of the CBC
156 (17)
Automated Results
156 (4)
The Peripheral Blood Smear
160 (12)
Clinical Laboratory Professional's Review of CBC Data
172 (1)
Post-Examination Phase of the CBC
173 (1)
Physiologic Variation in Hematologic Parameters
173 (1)
CBC Variations in Newborns and Children
173 (1)
CBC Variations Between Ethnic Groups and Sexes, in Elderly People, and by Geographic Location
173 (1)
Summary
174 (1)
Review Questions
174 (2)
Companion Resources
176 (1)
References
177 (1)
SECTION THREE THE ANEMIAS
178 (210)
Chapter 11 Introduction To Anemia
178 (20)
Overview
179 (1)
Introduction
179 (1)
How Does Anemia Develop?
180 (1)
Interpretation of Abnormal Hemoglobin Concentrations
180 (1)
Adaptations to Anemia
181 (1)
Increase in Oxygenated Blood Flow
181 (1)
Increase in Oxygen Utilization by Tissue
181 (1)
Diagnosis of Anemia
181 (7)
History
181 (1)
Physical Examination
182 (1)
Laboratory Investigation
183 (5)
Classification of Anemias
188 (6)
Morphologic Classification
188 (1)
Functional Classification
188 (4)
Classification Using the Red Cell Distribution Width
192 (1)
Laboratory Testing Schemas for Anemia Diagnosis
193 (1)
Summary
194 (1)
Review Questions
195 (2)
Companion Resources
197 (1)
References
197 (1)
Chapter 12 Anemias Of Disordered Iron Metabolism And Heme Synthesis
198 (33)
Overview
199 (1)
Introduction
200 (1)
Iron Metabolism
200 (9)
Distribution
200 (1)
Absorption
201 (1)
Transport
202 (2)
Storage
204 (1)
Physiological Regulation of Iron Balance
204 (4)
Iron Requirements
208 (1)
Laboratory Assessment of Iron
209 (1)
Iron Studies
209 (1)
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
210 (4)
Historical Aspects
210 (1)
Etiology
210 (1)
Pathophysiology
211 (1)
Clinical Features
211 (1)
Laboratory Features
212 (2)
Therapy
214 (1)
Anemia of Chronic Disease
214 (2)
Pathophysiology
214 (1)
Clinical Features
215 (1)
Laboratory Features
215 (1)
Anemias Associated with Abnormal Heme Synthesis
216 (4)
Sideroblastic Anemias
216 (4)
Hemochromatosis
220 (2)
Hereditary Hemochromatosis
221 (1)
Secondary Hemochromatosis
222 (1)
Treatment
222 (1)
Porphyrias
222 (3)
Pathophysiology
223 (1)
Clinical Features
224 (1)
Laboratory Features
225 (1)
Prognosis and Therapy
225 (1)
Summary
225 (2)
Review Questions
227 (2)
Companion Resources
229 (1)
References
229 (2)
Chapter 13 Hemoglobinopathies: Qualitative Defects
231 (20)
Overview
232 (1)
Introduction
232 (1)
Structural Hemoglobin Variants
233 (3)
Identification of Hemoglobin Variants
233 (1)
Methods of Analysis
234 (1)
Nomenclature
235 (1)
Pathophysiology
235 (1)
Sickle Cell Anemia
236 (5)
Pathophysiology
236 (1)
Clinical Findings
237 (2)
Laboratory Findings
239 (1)
Therapy
240 (1)
Sickle Cell Trait
241 (1)
Other Sickling Disorders
241 (1)
Hemoglobin C Disease
241 (1)
Hemoglobin S/C Disease
242 (1)
Hemoglobin D
243 (1)
Hemoglobin E
243 (1)
Unstable Hemoglobin Variants
244 (1)
Pathophysiology
244 (1)
Clinical Findings
244 (1)
Laboratory Findings
244 (1)
Therapy
245 (1)
Hemoglobin Variants with Altered Oxygen Affinity
245 (2)
Hemoglobin Variants with Increased Oxygen Affinity
245 (1)
Hemoglobin Variants with Decreased Oxygen Affinity
245 (1)
Methemoglobinemias
246 (1)
Summary
247 (1)
Review Questions
247 (2)
Companion Resources
249 (1)
References
249 (2)
Chapter 14 Thalassemia
251 (26)
Overview
252 (1)
Introduction
252 (5)
Thalassemia Versus Hemoglobinopathy
253 (1)
Genetic Defects in Thalassemia
254 (1)
Types of Thalassemia
254 (1)
Pathophysiology
255 (1)
Clinical Findings
255 (1)
Laboratory Findings
256 (1)
α-Thalassemia
257 (4)
General Considerations
257 (1)
α-Thalassemia Major (α0/α0 or α-thal-1/α-thal-1; Hydrops Fetalis)
257 (2)
Hemoglobin H Disease (α0/α+ or α-thal-1/α-thal-2)
259 (1)
α-Thalassemia Minor (α-thal-2/α-thal-2 [a+/a+], or α-thal-1/normal [α0/α])
260 (1)
Silent Carrier (α-thal-2/normal; α+/ α)
261 (1)
β-Thalassemia
261 (6)
General Considerations
261 (1)
β-Thalassemia Major (β0/β0, β0/β+, β+/ β+)
262 (3)
β-Thalassemia Minor (β0/β or β+/ β)
265 (1)
β-Thalassemia Intermedia (β+/ β+, β0/β+, β0/β)
266 (1)
β-Thalassemia Minima (βSC/β)
267 (1)
Other Thalassemias and Thalassemia-Like Conditions
267 (4)
δ β-Thalassemia
267 (1)
γδ β-Thalassemia
267 (1)
Hemoglobin Constant Spring
267 (1)
Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin (HPFH)
268 (1)
Hemoglobin Lepore
269 (1)
Combination Disorders
270 (1)
Differential Diagnosis of Thalassemia
271 (1)
Summary
272 (1)
Review Questions
272 (2)
Companion Resources
274 (1)
References
274 (3)
Chapter 15 Megaloblastic And Nonmegaloblastic Macrocytic Anemias
277 (25)
Overview
279 (1)
Introduction
279 (1)
Megaloblastic Anemia
279 (17)
Clinical Findings
280 (1)
Laboratory Findings
281 (2)
Folate
283 (4)
Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)
287 (7)
Other Megaloblastic Anemias
294 (2)
Macrocytic Anemia Without Megaloblastosis
296 (2)
Alcoholism
296 (1)
Liver Disease
296 (2)
Stimulated Erythropoiesis
298 (1)
Hypothyroidism
298 (1)
Summary
298 (1)
Review Questions
299 (1)
Companion Resources
300 (1)
References
301 (1)
Chapter 16 Hypoproliferative Anemias
302 (15)
Overview
303 (1)
Introduction
303 (1)
Aplastic Anemia
303 (7)
Epidemiology
304 (1)
Pathophysiology
304 (1)
Classification and Etiology
304 (3)
Clinical Findings
307 (1)
Laboratory Findings
307 (1)
Prognosis and Therapy
308 (1)
Differentiation of Aplastic Anemia from other Causes of Pancytopenia
309 (1)
Pure Red Cell Aplasia
310 (2)
Acquired Acute Pure Red Cell Aplasia
310 (1)
Chronic Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia
311 (1)
Diamond-Blackfan Syndrome
311 (1)
Other Hypoproliferative Anemias
312 (1)
Renal Disease
312 (1)
Endocrine Abnormalities
313 (1)
Summary
313 (1)
Review Questions
314 (2)
Companion Resources
316 (1)
References
316 (1)
Chapter 17 Hemolytic Anemia: Membrane Defects
317 (17)
Overview
318 (1)
Introduction
318 (1)
Membrane Defects
318 (2)
Skeletal Protein Abnormalities
318 (2)
Hereditary Spherocytosis
320 (3)
Pathophysiology
320 (1)
Clinical Findings
321 (1)
Laboratory Findings
321 (2)
Identification of Deficient/Defective Membrane Protein
323 (1)
Therapy
323 (1)
Hereditary Elliptocytosis
323 (2)
Pathophysiology
323 (1)
Clinical Findings
324 (1)
Laboratory Findings
324 (1)
Therapy
325 (1)
Hereditary Pyropoikilocytosis (HPP)
325 (1)
Pathophysiology
325 (1)
Clinical Findings
325 (1)
Laboratory Findings
325 (1)
Therapy
325 (1)
Hereditary Stomatocytosis Syndromes
326 (1)
Pathophysiology
326 (1)
Laboratory Findings
326 (1)
Therapy
327 (1)
Abnormal Membrane Lipid Composition: Acanthocytosis
327 (1)
Spur Cell Anemia
327 (1)
Abetalipoproteinemia (Hereditary Acanthocytosis)
327 (1)
Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyl Transferase (LCAT) Deficiency
328 (1)
Rare Forms
328 (1)
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)
328 (2)
Pathophysiology
328 (1)
Clinical Findings
329 (1)
Laboratory Findings
329 (1)
Therapy
330 (1)
Summary
330 (1)
Review Questions
330 (3)
Companion Resources
333 (1)
References
333 (1)
Chapter 18 Hemolytic Anemia: Enzyme Deficiencies
334 (14)
Overview
335 (1)
Introduction
335 (2)
Hexose Monophosphate Shunt
336 (1)
Glycolytic Pathway
336 (1)
Clinical and Laboratory Findings in Erythrocyte Enzyme Deficiencies
336 (1)
Diagnosis
337 (1)
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
337 (4)
Pathophysiology
337 (1)
G6PD Variants
338 (1)
Females with G6PD Deficiency
338 (1)
Clinical Findings
339 (1)
Laboratory Findings
340 (1)
Differential Diagnosis
341 (1)
Therapy
341 (1)
Other Defects and Deficiencies of the HMP Shunt and GSH Metabolism
341 (1)
Pyruvate Kinase (PK) Deficiency
342 (1)
Pathophysiology
342 (1)
Clinical Findings
342 (1)
Laboratory Findings
342 (1)
Therapy
343 (1)
Other Enzyme Deficiencies in the Glycolytic Pathway
343 (1)
Abnormal Erythrocyte Nucleotide Metabolism
343 (1)
Summary
344 (1)
Review Questions
344 (2)
Companion Resources
346 (1)
References
346 (2)
Chapter 19 Hemolytic Anemia: Immune Anemias
348 (24)
Overview
349 (1)
Introduction
349 (1)
Classification of Immune Hemolytic Anemias
350 (1)
Sites and Factors that Affect Hemolysis
351 (1)
Mechanisms of Hemolysis
352 (1)
IgG-Mediated Hemolysis
352 (1)
Complement-Mediated Hemolysis
352 (1)
IgM-Mediated Hemolysis
353 (1)
Laboratory Identification of Sensitized Red Cells
353 (2)
Direct Antiglobulin Test
354 (1)
Indirect Antiglobulin Test
354 (1)
Negative DAT in AIHA
354 (1)
Positive DAT in Normal Individuals
355 (1)
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemias (AIHA)
355 (8)
Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
355 (3)
Cold Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
358 (2)
Paroxysmal Cold Hemoglobinuria
360 (1)
Mixed-Type AIHA
361 (1)
Drug-Induced Hemolytic Anemias
361 (2)
Alloimmune Hemolytic Anemia
363 (4)
Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions
363 (2)
Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN)
365 (2)
Summary
367 (1)
Review Questions
368 (2)
Companion Resources
370 (1)
References
370 (2)
Chapter 20 Hemolytic Anemia: Nonimmune Defects
372 (16)
Overview
373 (1)
Introduction
373 (1)
Hemolytic Anemia Caused by Physical Injury to the Erythrocyte
373 (7)
Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia
374 (6)
Other Erythrocyte Physical Trauma Resulting in Hemolytic Anemia
380 (1)
Hemolytic Anemias Caused by Antagonists in the Blood
380 (3)
Infectious Agents
380 (2)
Animal Venoms
382 (1)
Chemicals and Drugs
383 (1)
Summary
383 (1)
Review Questions
383 (2)
Companion Resources
385 (1)
References
385 (3)
SECTION FOUR Nonmalignant Disorders Of Leukocytes
388 (37)
Chapter 21 Nonmalignant Disorders Of Leukocytes: Granulocytes And Monocytes
388 (20)
Overview
389 (1)
Introduction
390 (1)
Neutrophil Disorders
390 (10)
Quantitative Disorders
390 (5)
Qualitative or Morphologic Abnormalities
395 (5)
Eosinophil Disorders
400 (1)
Nonclonal (Reactive) Eosinophilia
400 (1)
Clonal (Neoplastic) Eosinophilia
401 (1)
Basophil and Mast Cell Disorders
401 (1)
Monocyte/Macrophage Disorders
402 (2)
Quantitative Disorders
402 (1)
Qualitative Disorders
402 (2)
Summary
404 (1)
Review Questions
405 (2)
Companion Resources
407 (1)
References
407 (1)
Chapter 22 Nonmalignant Lymphocyte Disorders
408 (17)
Overview
409 (1)
Introduction
409 (1)
Lymphocytosis
410 (5)
Infectious Mononucleosis
411 (2)
Toxoplasmosis
413 (1)
Cytomegalovirus
413 (1)
The Reactive Lymphocytosis Process
413 (1)
Bordetella pertussis
413 (1)
Persistent Polyclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis
414 (1)
Other Conditions Associated with Lymphocytosis
414 (1)
Plasmacytosis
414 (1)
Lymphocytopenia
415 (6)
Immune Deficiency Disorders
415 (6)
Summary
421 (1)
Review Questions
421 (3)
Companion Resources
424 (1)
References
424 (1)
SECTION FIVE NEOPLASTIC HEMATOLOGIC DISORDERS
425 (147)
Chapter 23 Introduction To Hematopoietic Neoplasms
425 (21)
Overview
426 (1)
Introduction
427 (1)
Etiology/Pathophysiology
428 (5)
Cancer Stem Cells
428 (1)
Molecular Basis of Cancer
429 (2)
Leukemogenesis
431 (2)
Epidemiology
433 (1)
Clinical Findings
433 (1)
Hematologic Findings
433 (1)
Hematopoietic Neoplasm Classification
434 (2)
Myeloid Neoplasms
434 (1)
Lymphoid Neoplasms
435 (1)
Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosing and Classifying Neoplasms
436 (2)
Cytochemical Analysis
436 (1)
Immunologic Analysis
437 (1)
Genetic Analysis
438 (1)
Prognosis and Treatment of Neoplastic Disorders
438 (3)
Prognosis
438 (1)
Treatment
439 (2)
Summary
441 (1)
Review Questions
442 (2)
Companion Resources
444 (1)
References
445 (1)
Chapter 24 Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
446 (33)
Overview
447 (1)
Introduction
448 (1)
Part I Overview of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs)
448 (1)
Classification
448 (1)
Pathophysiology
449 (1)
General Features
450 (1)
Part II Subgroups of MPNs
450 (1)
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
450 (7)
Etiology and Pathophysiology
451 (2)
Clinical Findings
453 (1)
Laboratory Findings
453 (1)
Terminal Phase
454 (1)
Therapy
455 (1)
Differential Diagnosis
456 (1)
Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL)
457 (1)
Etiology and Pathophysiology
457 (1)
Clinical Findings
457 (1)
Laboratory Findings
458 (1)
Therapy
458 (1)
Differential Diagnosis
458 (1)
Essential Thrombocythemia (ET)
458 (3)
Etiology and Pathophysiology
458 (1)
Clinical Findings
459 (1)
Laboratory Findings
459 (1)
Prognosis and Therapy
460 (1)
Differential Diagnosis
460 (1)
Polycythemia Vera (PV)
461 (6)
Classification
461 (1)
Etiology and Pathophysiology
462 (1)
Clinical Findings
463 (1)
Laboratory Findings
463 (1)
Prognosis and Therapy
464 (1)
Differential Diagnosis
465 (1)
Relative Polycythemia
465 (2)
Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF)
467 (3)
Etiology and Pathophysiology
467 (1)
Clinical Findings
467 (1)
Laboratory Findings
468 (1)
Prognosis and Therapy
469 (1)
Differential Diagnosis
469 (1)
Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable (MPN, U)
470 (1)
Laboratory Findings
470 (1)
Clonal Hypereosinophilia
470 (3)
Myeloid and Lymphoid Neoplasms Associated with Eosinophilia and PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1 Mutations
471 (1)
Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia, Not Otherwise Specified (CEL-NOS)
472 (1)
Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (I-HES)
473 (1)
Mast Cell Disease (Mastocytosis)
473 (1)
Summary
474 (1)
Review Questions
474 (3)
Companion Resources
477 (1)
References
477 (2)
Chapter 25 Myelodysplastic Syndromes
479 (21)
Overview
480 (1)
Introduction
480 (1)
Pathogenesis
481 (2)
Cytogenetics, Epigenetics, and Single Gene Mutations
481 (1)
Proliferation Abnormalities
482 (1)
Incidence
483 (1)
Clinical Findings
483 (1)
Laboratory Findings
483 (4)
Peripheral Blood
483 (2)
Bone Marrow
485 (1)
Molecular Diagnostics
486 (1)
Other Laboratory Findings
486 (1)
Blast and Precursor Cell Classification
487 (2)
Myeloblasts
487 (1)
Promyelocytes
487 (1)
Ring Sideroblasts
488 (1)
Cytochemical and Immunological Identification of Blasts
489 (1)
Classification
489 (1)
Description of Subgroups of MDS
489 (3)
Refractory Cytopenia with Unilineage Dysplasia (RCUD)
490 (1)
Refractory Anemia with Ring Sideroblasts (RARS)
491 (1)
Refractory Cytopenia with Multilineage Dysplasia (RCMD)
491 (1)
Refractory Anemia with Excess Blasts (RAEBs)
491 (1)
MDS Associated with Isolated del(5q)
491 (1)
Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Unclassifiable
491 (1)
Childhood MDS
491 (1)
Variants of MDS
492 (1)
Hypoplastic MDS
492 (1)
MDS with Fibrosis
492 (1)
Therapy-Related Myelodysplasia
492 (1)
Prognosis
493 (1)
Therapy
494 (1)
Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MDS/MPNs)
494 (2)
Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia
494 (1)
Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (aCML, BCR/ABL1-)
495 (1)
Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia
496 (1)
Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, Unclassifiable (MDS/MPN, U)
496 (1)
Summary
496 (1)
Review Questions
497 (1)
Companion Resources
498 (1)
References
499 (1)
Chapter 26 Acute Myeloid Leukemias
500 (22)
Overview
501 (1)
Introduction
501 (1)
Etiology and Pathophysiology
502 (1)
Laboratory Findings
502 (1)
Peripheral Blood
502 (1)
Bone Marrow
503 (1)
Other Laboratory Findings
503 (1)
Classification
503 (15)
Identification of Cell Lineage
504 (1)
Assessment of Bone Marrow
505 (3)
WHO Classification of AML
508 (10)
Therapy
518 (1)
Summary
518 (1)
Review Questions
519 (1)
Companion Resources
520 (1)
References
521 (1)
Chapter 27 Precursor Lymphoid Neoplasms
522 (13)
Overview
523 (1)
Introduction
523 (1)
Etiology and Pathogenesis
523 (1)
Clinical Findings
524 (1)
Laboratory Findings
524 (2)
Peripheral Blood
524 (1)
Bone Marrow
525 (1)
Tissue Involvement
525 (1)
Other Laboratory Findings
525 (1)
Identification of Cell Lineage
526 (1)
Morphology and Cytochemistry
526 (1)
Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT)
526 (1)
Immunophenotyping
526 (1)
Cytogenetic Analysis
527 (1)
Molecular Analysis
527 (1)
WHO Classification
527 (4)
B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma
527 (2)
T-Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma
529 (1)
Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage
530 (1)
Therapy
531 (1)
Summary
531 (1)
Review Questions
532 (2)
Companion Resources
534 (1)
References
534 (1)
Chapter 28 Mature Lymphoid Neoplasms
535 (22)
Overview
536 (1)
Introduction
537 (1)
Etiology and Pathogenesis
537 (1)
Acquired Genetic Factors
537 (1)
Inherited genetic Factors
537 (1)
Environmental Factors
537 (1)
Diagnosis and Classification
537 (2)
Mature B-Cell Neoplasms
539 (10)
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma
539 (1)
B-Cell Prolymphocyte Leukemia
540 (1)
Hairy Cell Leukemia
541 (1)
Follicular Lymphoma
541 (2)
Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)
543 (1)
Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue
544 (1)
Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma
544 (1)
Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
545 (1)
Burkitt Lymphoma
545 (1)
Plasma Cell Neoplasms
546 (3)
Mature T- and NK-Cell Neoplasms
549 (2)
T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia
549 (1)
T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocytic (T-LGL) Leukemia
550 (1)
Sezary's Syndrome
550 (1)
Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL)
550 (1)
Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)
551 (1)
Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)
551 (2)
Summary
553 (1)
Review Questions
554 (2)
Companion Resources
556 (1)
References
556 (1)
Chapter 29 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
557 (15)
Overview
558 (1)
Introduction
558 (1)
Origin and Differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells
559 (1)
Sources of Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Types of Stem Cell Transplants
559 (2)
Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation
559 (1)
Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation
560 (1)
Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Transplantation
560 (1)
Collection and Processing of Hematopoietic Stem Cells
561 (1)
Bone Marrow
561 (1)
Peripheral Blood
561 (1)
Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB)
562 (1)
Purging
562 (1)
Cryopreservation and Storage of Hematopoietic Stem Cells
562 (1)
Infusion of Hematopoietic Stem Cells
562 (1)
Quantitation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells
562 (2)
Determination of Mononuclear Cell Count
562 (1)
CD34 Enumeration by Flow Cytometry
563 (1)
Cell Culture for Colony Forming Units
563 (1)
Collection Target for Stem Cells
564 (1)
Hematopoietic Engraftment
564 (1)
Evidence of Initial Engraftment
564 (1)
Evidence of Long-Term Engraftment
564 (1)
Role of the Clinical Laboratory Professional in Stem Cell Transplantation
564 (1)
Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Graft-Versus-Leukemia Effect
565 (2)
Complications Associated with Stem Cell Transplantation
567 (1)
Early Complications
567 (1)
Late Complications
567 (1)
Increased Availability and Success of Stem Cell Transplantation
568 (1)
Gene Therapy
568 (1)
Summary
568 (1)
Review Questions
568 (2)
Companion Resources
570 (1)
References
570 (2)
SECTION SIX BODY FLUIDS
572 (36)
Chapter 30 Morphologic Analysis Of Body Fluids In The Hematology Laboratory
572 (36)
Overview
573 (1)
Introduction
574 (1)
Types of Body Fluids
574 (4)
Serous Fluids
574 (1)
Cerebrospinal Fluid
575 (2)
Synovial Fluid
577 (1)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL)
577 (1)
Hematologic Analysis of Body Fluids
578 (22)
Specimen Collection and Handling
578 (1)
Physical Characteristics
578 (1)
Cell Counting
579 (3)
Nucleated Cell Differential
582 (18)
Analysis of Other Fluids
600 (4)
BAL Fluid
600 (1)
Amniotic Fluid Lamellar Body Counts
600 (1)
Semen Analysis
601 (3)
Summary
604 (1)
Review Questions
604 (2)
Companion Resources
606 (1)
References
606 (2)
SECTION SEVEN HEMOSTASIS
608 (174)
Chapter 31 Primary Hemostasis
608 (24)
Overview
609 (1)
Introduction
609 (1)
Role of the Vascular System
610 (5)
Structure of Blood Vessels
610 (1)
Functions of Blood Vessels in Hemostasis
611 (2)
Functions of Endothelial Cells
613 (2)
Platelets in Hemostasis
615 (13)
Platelet Structure
615 (5)
Platelet Function
620 (8)
Physiologic Controls of Platelet Activation
628 (1)
Summary
628 (1)
Review Questions
629 (1)
Companion Resources
630 (1)
References
630 (2)
Chapter 32 Secondary Hemostasis And Fibrinolysis
632 (31)
Overview
633 (1)
Introduction
634 (1)
Coagulation Mechanism
634 (1)
Procoagulant Factors
635 (3)
Properties of the Blood Coagulation Factors
635 (2)
Mechanism of Action of the Coagulation Factors
637 (1)
Vitamin K-Dependent Coagulation Proteins
637 (1)
Structure of the Blood Coagulation Proteins
638 (1)
Coagulation Cascade
638 (9)
Complex Formation on Phosholipid Surfaces
638 (1)
The Intrinsic Pathway
638 (5)
The Extrinsic Pathway
643 (1)
The Common Pathway
643 (4)
The Fibrinolytic System
647 (6)
Introduction
647 (1)
Plasminogen (PLG) and Plasmin (PLN)
648 (1)
Activators of Fibrinolysis
648 (2)
Fibrin Degradation
650 (2)
Inhibitors of Fibrinolysis
652 (1)
Control of Hemostasis
653 (5)
Blood Flow
653 (1)
Liver Clearance
653 (1)
Positive Feedback Amplification
653 (1)
Negative Feedback Inhibition
654 (1)
Biochemical Inhibitors
654 (4)
Physiologic Hemostasis
658 (1)
Summary
659 (1)
Review Questions
659 (2)
Companion Resources
661 (1)
References
661 (2)
Chapter 33 Disorders Of Primary Hemostasis
663 (26)
Overview
664 (1)
Introduction
665 (1)
Diagnosis of Bleeding Disorders
665 (1)
Clinical Manifestations of Bleeding Disorders
665 (1)
Evaluation of a Patient with Abnormal Bleeding
665 (1)
Disorders of the Vascular System
666 (3)
Hereditary Disorders of the Vascular System
667 (1)
Acquired Disorders of the Vascular System
667 (2)
Platelet Disorders
669 (16)
Quantitative Platelet Disorders
669 (10)
Qualitative (Functional) Platelet Disorders
679 (6)
Summary
685 (1)
Review Questions
685 (2)
Companion Resources
687 (1)
References
687 (2)
Chapter 34 Disorders Of Secondary Hemostasis
689 (31)
Overview
690 (1)
Introduction
690 (1)
Disorders of the Proteins of Fibrin Formation
691 (22)
Hereditary Disorders of Secondary Hemostasis
692 (14)
Acquired Disorders of Hemostasis Associated with Bleeding
706 (7)
Flow Charts
713 (1)
Hemostasis in the Newborn
713 (2)
Normal Hemostasis in the Newborn
713 (2)
Common Bleeding Disorders in the Neonate
715 (1)
Summary
715 (1)
Review Questions
716 (2)
Companion Resources
718 (1)
References
718 (2)
Chapter 35 Thrombophilia
720 (30)
Overview
721 (1)
Introduction
722 (1)
Thrombus Formation
722 (2)
Arterial Thrombi
722 (1)
Venous Thrombi
723 (1)
Microparticles in Arterial and Venous Thrombosis
724 (1)
Thrombophilia
724 (15)
Hereditary Thrombophilia
725 (6)
Other Potential Genetic Risk Factors
731 (2)
Acquired Thrombohemorrhagic Conditions
733 (6)
Laboratory Testing in Patients with Suspected Thrombosis
739 (1)
Anticoagulant Therapy
740 (4)
Heparin
740 (1)
Oral Anticoagulants
741 (1)
New Anticoagulants
742 (1)
Thrombolytic Therapy
742 (1)
Antiplatelet Therapy
743 (1)
Summary
744 (1)
Review Questions
744 (2)
Companion Resources
746 (1)
References
746 (4)
Chapter 36 Hemostasis: Laboratory Testing And Instrumentation
750 (32)
Overview
752 (1)
Introduction
752 (1)
Specimen Collection and Processing
752 (2)
Specimen Collection
752 (1)
Specimen Processing
753 (1)
Laboratory Investigation of Primary Hemostasis
754 (3)
Bleeding Time
754 (1)
Platelet Function Analyzers
754 (3)
Laboratory Investigation of Secondary Hemostasis
757 (7)
Screening Tests
757 (2)
Tests to Identify a Specific Factor Deficiency
759 (5)
Identification of Inhibitors
764 (3)
Laboratory Investigation of the Fibrinolytic System
766 (1)
D-Dimer
766 (1)
Fibrin Degradation Products
767 (1)
Euglobulin Clot Lysis
767 (1)
Laboratory Investigation of Hypercoagulable States
767 (3)
Antithrombin (AT)
768 (1)
Protein C/Activated Protein C (APC)
768 (1)
Protein S
769 (1)
Activated Protein C Resistance (APCR)
769 (1)
Prothrombin G20210A
769 (1)
Additional Testing for Thrombosis
769 (1)
Laboratory Evaluation of Anticoagulant Therapy
770 (3)
Oral Anticoagulant Therapy and the Prothrombin Time---INR Value
771 (1)
Heparin Therapy Monitoring
771 (2)
Molecular Markers of Hemostatic Activation
773 (1)
Markers of Fibrin Formation and Fibrinolysis
773 (1)
Laboratory Markers of Platelet Activation
773 (1)
Global Testing
774 (1)
Thromboelastography (TEG)
774 (1)
ROTEM
774 (1)
Calibrated Automated Thrombogran (CAT)
774 (1)
Hemostasis Instrumentation
774 (3)
Evolution of Hemostasis Testing
774 (1)
Automated Hemostasis Analyzer Methodologies
775 (1)
Point-of-Care (POC) Hemostasis Instrumentation
776 (1)
Summary
777 (1)
Review Questions
777 (2)
Companion Resources
779 (1)
References
779 (3)
SECTION EIGHT HEMATOLOGY PROCEDURES
782 (121)
Chapter 37 Hematology Procedures
782 (33)
Overview
784 (1)
Laboratory Testing Regulations
784 (1)
Sample Collection: Phlebotomy
785 (3)
Anticoagulants
785 (1)
Equipment
786 (1)
Venipuncture
787 (1)
Capillary Puncture
787 (1)
Phlebotomy Safety
787 (1)
Microscopy: the Microscope
788 (2)
Bright-Field Microscopy
788 (1)
Phase-Contrast Microscopy
789 (1)
Koehler Illumination
789 (1)
Preventative Maintenance
789 (1)
Part I Routine Hematology Procedures
790 (1)
Peripheral Blood Smear Preparation
790 (1)
Manual Method
790 (1)
Automated Method
791 (1)
Peripheral Blood Smear Staining
791 (1)
Peripheral Blood Smear Examination
792 (2)
Cell Enumeration by Hemacytometer
794 (1)
Manual Leukocyte Count
794 (1)
Manual Erythrocyte Count
795 (1)
Manual Platelet Count
795 (1)
Hemoglobin Concentration
795 (1)
Hematocrit
796 (1)
Erythrocyte Indices
796 (1)
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
797 (1)
Reticulocyte Count
798 (1)
Solubility Test for Hemoglobin S
799 (1)
Part II Reflex Hematology Procedures
800 (1)
Hemoglobin Electrophoresis
800 (1)
Quantitation of Hemoglobin A2
801 (1)
Acid Elution for Hemoglobin F
801 (1)
Quantitation of Hemoglobin F
802 (1)
Alkali Denaturation
802 (1)
Other Methods
802 (1)
Heat Denaturation Test for Unstable Hemoglobin
802 (1)
Heinz Body Stain
802 (1)
Osmotic Fragility Test
803 (1)
Donath-Landsteiner Test for Paroxysmal Cold Hemoglobinuria (PCH)
804 (1)
Erythropoietin
804 (1)
Soluble Transferrin Receptor
805 (1)
Cytochemical Stains
805 (5)
Myeloperoxidase
805 (1)
Sudan Black B
805 (1)
Chloroacetate Esterase
806 (1)
α-Naphthyl Esterase (Nonspecific Esterase)
806 (1)
Periodic Acid-Schiff
807 (1)
Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase
807 (1)
Acid Phosphatase and Tartrate-Resistan Acid Phosphatase (TRAP)
808 (1)
Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase
808 (1)
Toluidine Blue
809 (1)
Reticulin Stain and Masson's Trichrome Stain
809 (1)
Summary
810 (1)
Review Questions
810 (2)
Companion Resources
812 (1)
References
812 (3)
Chapter 38 Bone Marrow Examination
815 (14)
Overview
816 (1)
Introduction
816 (1)
Indications for Bone Marrow Evaluation
816 (1)
Bone Marrow Procedure
817 (1)
Bone Marrow Processing for Examination
818 (1)
Bone Marrow Aspirate Smears, Particle Preparation, and Clot Sections
818 (1)
Touch Imprints and Core Biopsy
819 (1)
Morphologic Interpretation of Bone Marrow
819 (5)
Bone Marrow Aspirate
819 (2)
Touch Imprints
821 (1)
Bone Marrow Particle Preparation and Clot and Core Biopsy
821 (1)
Benign Lymphoid Aggregates versus Malignant Lymphoma
821 (2)
Bone Marrow Iron Stores
823 (1)
Special Studies on Bone Marrow
824 (1)
Flow Cytometry
824 (1)
Cytogenetics
824 (1)
Molecular Genetics
824 (1)
Cytochemical Stains
825 (1)
Bone Marrow Report
825 (1)
Summary
826 (1)
Review Questions
826 (2)
Companion Resources
828 (1)
References
828 (1)
Chapter 39 Automation In Hematology
829 (24)
Overview
830 (1)
Introduction
830 (1)
Automated Blood Cell--Counting Instruments
830 (18)
Impedance Instruments
831 (15)
Light-Scattering Instruments
846 (2)
Summary
848 (1)
Review Questions
849 (2)
Companion Resources
851 (1)
References
851 (2)
Chapter 40 Flow Cytometry
853 (16)
Overview
854 (1)
Introduction
854 (1)
Principles of Flow Cytometry
855 (2)
Isolation of Single Particles
855 (1)
Light Scattering
856 (1)
Detection of Fluorochromes
856 (1)
Data Analysis
857 (1)
Immunophenotyping by Flow Cytometry
857 (7)
Specimen Requirements and Preparation for Immunophenotyping
859 (1)
Isolation of Cells of Interest by Gating
859 (1)
Diagnosis and Classification of Mature Lymphoid Neoplasms
859 (2)
Diagnosis and Classification of Acute Leukemia
861 (2)
Diagnosis and Surveillance of Immunodeficiency Disorders
863 (1)
CD34 Enumeration
864 (1)
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)
864 (1)
DNA Analysis
864 (1)
Proliferation
865 (1)
Ploidy
865 (1)
Clinical Applications of DNA Analysis
865 (1)
Summary
865 (1)
Review Questions
866 (2)
Companion Resources
868 (1)
References
868 (1)
Chapter 41 Chromosome Analysis Of Hematopoietic And Lymphoid Disorders
869 (18)
Overview
870 (1)
Introduction
870 (1)
Chromosome Structure and Morphology
870 (1)
Mitosis
871 (1)
Cytogenetic Procedures
872 (3)
Specimen Preparation
872 (1)
Harvest Procedure and Banding
873 (1)
Chromosome Analysis
873 (2)
Chromosome Abnormalities
875 (2)
Numerical Aberrations
875 (1)
Structural Aberrations
875 (2)
Polymorphic Variation
877 (1)
Cytogenetic Nomenclature
877 (1)
Cytogenetic Analysis of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Disorders
878 (4)
Processing Specimens
878 (1)
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
879 (1)
Myeloproliferative Disorders Other Than CML
880 (1)
Acute Myeloid Leukemia
880 (1)
Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDSs)
881 (1)
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)/Lymphoma
881 (1)
Lymphoma and Lymphoproliferative Disorders
882 (1)
Bone Marrow Transplantation
882 (1)
Molecular Cytogenetics
882 (1)
Summary
883 (1)
Review Questions
883 (2)
Companion Resources
885 (1)
References
885 (2)
Chapter 42 Molecular Analysis Of Hematologic Diseases
887 (16)
Overview
888 (1)
Introduction
888 (1)
Overview of Molecular Technologies
889 (6)
Nucleic Acid Extraction
889 (1)
Nucleic Acid Amplification
889 (4)
Hybridization Techniques
893 (2)
Direct DNA Sequence Analysis
895 (1)
Clinical Applications of Molecular Diagnostics in Hematopathology
895 (4)
Erythrocyte Disorders
897 (1)
Leukemia
897 (2)
Infectious Diseases
899 (1)
Clinical Applications of Molecular Diagnosis in Hemostasis
899 (1)
CYP2C9
899 (1)
VKORC1
900 (1)
Factor V Leiden (FVL)
900 (1)
Prothrombin G20210A
900 (1)
Hemophilia A
900 (1)
Hemophilia B
900 (1)
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR)
900 (1)
Von Willebrand Disease (VWD)
900 (1)
Summary
900 (1)
Review Questions
901 (1)
Companion Resources
902 (1)
References
902 (1)
SECTION NINE QUALITY ASSESSMENT
903 (19)
Chapter 43 Quality Assessment In The Hematology Laboratory
903 (19)
Overview
904 (1)
Test Coding and Reimbursement
904 (1)
Quality Assessment
905 (7)
Basic Components
905 (2)
Proficiency Testing
907 (1)
Competency Testing
907 (1)
Method Evaluation/Instrument Comparison
908 (2)
Reference Interval Determination
910 (1)
Safety
911 (1)
Quality Control
912 (2)
Control Materials
912 (1)
Establishing Quality Control (QC) Limits
912 (1)
Interpreting Quality Control Charts
912 (1)
Bull's Testing Algorithm (Moving Averages)
913 (1)
Monitoring Quality Control with Patient Samples
913 (1)
Review of Patient Results
914 (4)
Hematology
914 (4)
Hemostasis
918 (1)
Summary
918 (1)
Review Questions
919 (1)
Companion Resources
920 (1)
References
921 (1)
Appendices
Appendix A Answers to Review Questions
922 (10)
Appendix B Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Neoplasms: Immunophenotypic and Genetic Features
932 (3)
Appendix C 2008 WHO Classification of Hematologic, Lymphopoietic, Histiocytic/Dendritric Neoplasms
935 (3)
Glossary 938 (34)
Index 972


Otros títulos de Hematologia:


2011
  Detalle
Lichtman, Marshall A., M.D. ; Kaushansky, Kenneth, M.D. ; Kipps, Thomas J., M.D., Ph.D.

Williams Manual of Hematology 8 Ed.

Preface ix
Part I Initial Clinical Evaluation
1 Approach to the Patient
1 (8)
Part II Disorders Of Red Cells
2 Classification of Anemias and Polycythemias
9 (6)
3 Aplastic...
2008
  Detalle
Orkin, Stuart H. ; Nathan, David G. ; Ginsburg, David

Nathan and Oski's Hematology of Infancy and Childhood (Book with Access Code) 7 Ed.

Book Description:
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Brandon/Hill Medical List minimal-core, first-purchase selection (#272). Offers comprehensive coverage of all hematologic disorders along with breakthroughs in diagnosis and treatment. The oncology section is now in a separate volume and is not yet available. For practitioners. Previous author, Nathan, c2003. DNLM: Hematologic Diseases.

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