Handbook on Animal-assisted Therapy: Foundations and Guidelines for Animal-assisted Interventions 4 Ed.

Fine, Aubrey
Handbook on Animal-assisted Therapy: Foundations and Guidelines for Animal-assisted Interventions
Especialidad: Veterinaria
ISBN: 9780128012925
Publicación: 2015
Idioma: Ingles

Contributors xvii
Foreword xix
Preface xxiii
About the Editor xxv
Acknowledgments xxvii
Part I The Conceptualization of Animal--Human Bond: The Foundation for Understanding Animal Assisted Interventions
1 Understanding Our Kinship with Animals: Input for Health Care Professionals Interested in the Human--Animal Bond
Aubrey H. Fine
Alan M. Beck
1.1 Introduction
3 (1)
1.2 Introduction to the Human--Animal Bond
3 (1)
1.3 Defining the Human--Animal Bond
4 (1)
1.4 Pets and People: Case Studies Reveal the Importance
5 (1)
1.5 Theories Explaining the Bond
6 (1)
1.6 The Biological Benefits of the Bond
7 (1)
1.7 Final Remarks
8 (3)
References
9 (2)
2 Animal-Assisted Interventions in Historical Perspective
James A. Serpell
2.1 Introduction
11 (1)
2.2 Animal Souls and Spiritual Healing
11 (1)
2.3 Animal Powers and Shamanism
12 (1)
2.4 Animism in Classical and Medieval Times
13 (2)
2.5 Animals as Agents of Socialization
15 (1)
2.6 Animals and Psychotherapy
16 (1)
2.7 Animals, Relaxation, and Social Support
17 (1)
2.8 Conclusions
17 (4)
References
18 (3)
3 Forward Thinking: The Evolving Field of Human--Animal Interactions
Aubrey H. Fine
Philip Tedeschi
Frica Elvove
3.1 To See Where We Are Headed, We Must See Where We Have Been
21 (1)
3.2 Progression of Animal-Assisted Interventions
22 (1)
3.3 Developing Common Terminology
22 (1)
3.4 Redefining Our Relationship with Animals and the Living World
23 (2)
3.4.1 Embracing Biophilia and Moving Toward Biocentrism
23 (1)
3.4.2 One Health and Global Perspective
24 (1)
3.4.3 Therapeutic Transfer
24 (1)
3.5 What Do Animals Have to Do with Human Health?
25 (4)
3.5.1 Public Health and Wellness
26 (1)
3.5.2 Social Capital
27 (1)
3.5.3 Birds Tweet? Technology and AAls
27 (1)
3.5.4 Nature Deprivation
28 (1)
3.6 Research Directions
29 (2)
3.6.1 Research Informed Practice
29 (1)
3.6.2 The Value of Implementation Science
30 (1)
3.7 Professionalizing the AAls Field
31 (2)
3.7.1 The Importance of Education
32 (1)
3.7.2 A Call for Specialized Training, Certification, and Standards of Practice
33 (1)
3.8 Into the Future
33 (4)
References
34 (3)
4 Influence of Cultural and Religious Factors on Attitudes toward Animals
Brinda Jegatheesan
4.1 Introduction
37 (1)
4.2 Cultural and Religious Factors
37 (3)
4.2.1 Significance of Acculturation
38 (2)
4.3 A Culturally Responsive Framework for AAI
40 (1)
4.3.1 Cultural Self-Awareness
40 (1)
4.3.2 Knowledge of Clients
40 (1)
4.3.3 Developing Skills
40 (1)
4.4 Conclusion
40 (3)
Acknowledgment
40 (1)
Dedication
41 (1)
References
41 (2)
5 Animal Therapy on the Community Level: The Impact of Pets on Social Capital
Phil Arkow
5.1 Introduction
43 (1)
5.2 Animals and Social Capital
44 (1)
5.3 The Absence of Pets and Social Capital
45 (1)
5.4 Estimating Community Pet Populations
45 (2)
5.5 Estimating Unwanted, Abused, and Aggressive Animal Populations
47 (1)
5.6 The Urban Community Link: Pets as Calming Ambassadors of Nature
48 (1)
5.7 Conclusion
48 (5)
References
49 (4)
6 Recruiting Psychosocial Health Effects of Animals for Families and Communities: Transition to Practice
Lynette A. Hart
Mariko Yamamoto
6.1 Introduction: Expanding Applications of the Human/Animal Relationship
53 (2)
6.1.1 Definitions of Animals Used in Human Health
53 (2)
6.1.2 Focus on Vulnerable Populations
55 (1)
6.1.3 Subcultures and Psychosocial Effects of Pets
55 (1)
6.1.4 Goals of This Chapter
55 (1)
6.2 The Potential of Pets to Enhance the Quality of Life
55 (7)
6.2.1 Effects of Social Supports on Loneliness and Depression
56 (3)
6.2.2 Socializing Effects
59 (1)
6.2.3 Motivating Effects of Pets
60 (1)
6.2.4 Physiologic and Calming Effects
61 (1)
6.3 Personalized Normalizing of the Environment for People with Special Needs
62 (3)
6.3.1 Psychological Framework Behind the Effects of HAI
63 (1)
6.3.2 Availability of Personalized Interaction with Animals
63 (1)
6.3.3 Relationship with and Perceptions Toward the Interacting Animals
63 (1)
6.3.4 Normalizing Effects for Broader Populations, Including Nonvulnerable People
64 (1)
6.4 For the Health Professions: Leadership in Implementing Animals as Treatment or Social Support
65 (8)
6.4.1 Professional Support for Contact With Animals
65 (1)
6.4.2 Can Robots Used in Treatment or Assistance Substitute for Animals?
66 (1)
6.4.3 Conclusions
67 (1)
Acknowledgment
67 (1)
References
67 (6)
7 The Animal--Human Bond: Health and Wellness
Erika Friedmann
Heesook Son
Mudasir Saleem
2.1 Introduction
7.1 The Conceptualization of the Animal-Human Bond: The Foundation for Understanding Animal--Assisted Therapy
73 (11)
7.1.1 Health Benefits from AAA
74 (2)
7.1.2 Epidemiological Evidence for Health Benefits
76 (3)
7.1.3 Experimental or Quasi-Experimental Research
79 (5)
7.2 Conclusion
84 (7)
References
84 (7)
Part II Animal-Assisted Interventions: Conceptual Model and Guidelines for Quality Assurance
8 What's Love Got to Do with It? Selecting Animals for Animal-Assisted Mental Health Interventions
Maureen MacNamara
Jeannine Moga
Christopher Pachel
8.1 Introduction
91 (1)
8.2 Step One: Clarifying the Purpose of Animals in Practice
92 (1)
8.3 Step Two: Determining the Category--and Approach--of Animal Interventions
93 (1)
8.4 Delivery Approach
94 (1)
8.5 Step Three: Developing Working Animal Job Descriptions
95 (1)
8.6 Step Four: MacNamara Animal Capability Assessment Model
96 (2)
8.7 Interplay and Interaction of Animal-Assisted Intervention Factors
98 (1)
8.8 Potential for Animal Stress
99 (1)
8.9 Conclusion
100 (15)
References
101 (14)
9 Understanding the Other End of the Leash: What Therapists Need to Understand about Their Co-therapists
Patricia McConnell
Aubrey H. Fine
10 The Role of the Equine in Animal--Assisted Interactions
Donna Latella
Barbara N. Abrams
10.1 History of Equine Interactions
115 (1)
10.2 Role of Equine in EAA/T---The Horse as the Therapist
115 (1)
10.3 Why a Horse?
116 (1)
10.4 Hippotherapy
117 (1)
10.5 Benefits and Outcomes of TR and HPOT
117 (1)
10.6 The Evolution of and Role of the Equine in TR
117 (1)
10.7 Military Trauma and EAA/T
117 (1)
10.8 Evidence-Based Research
118 (1)
10.9 Evidence Involving TR and Children
118 (3)
10.10 Evidence Involving TR and Adults
121 (1)
10.11 Credentials for TR Instruction
121 (1)
10.12 The TR Lesson Team
121 (1)
10.13 Definition, Evolution, and Role of the Equine in HPOT
121 (1)
10.14 Theoretical Base
122 (1)
10.15 Physical Context
122 (1)
10.16 Evidence-Based Research
123 (1)
10.17 The HPOT Team
124 (1)
10.18 HPOT Credentials
124 (1)
10.19 Mental Health Programs
124 (1)
10.20 The Role of the Mental Health Professional in EFP/EAP
125 (1)
10.21 Theoretical Underpinnings
126 (1)
10.22 Evidence-Based Research Involving EFP/EAP for Children and Youths
126 (1)
10.23 Evidence Involving EFP/EAP and Adults
127 (1)
10.24 Evidence Involving EFP/EAP and Victims of Trauma
128 (1)
10.25 Military Trauma and EFP/EAP as Complementary Intervention
128 (1)
10.26 Equine Learning Programs
129 (1)
10.26.1 EFL/EAL, Equine-Facilitated Mental Health and Learning
129 (1)
10.26.2 EFL/EAL Equine-Facilitated / Assisted Learning for Children and Adults
129 (1)
10.27 Therapeutic Carriage Driving
129 (1)
10.28 Members of the TCD Team
130 (1)
10.29 Therapeutic Carriage Driving Certification
131 (1)
10.30 Military Veterans and TCD
131 (1)
10.31 Therapeutic Vaulting
131 (1)
10.32 Benefits
131 (1)
10.33 Examples of TV Exercises
131 (1)
10.34 Credentials for TV
132 (1)
10.35 General Examples of Safety Considerations for all Types of EAA/EAT
132 (1)
10.36 Who May Participate?
132 (1)
10.37 Conclusion
133 (8)
References
134 (7)
Part III Best Practices in Animal-Assisted Interventions: Guidelines for Use of AAI with Special Populations
11 Incorporating Animal-Assisted Interventions into Psychotherapy: Guidelines and Suggestions for Therapists
Aubrey H. Fine
11.1 Introduction
141 (1)
11.2 The Need for Research
141 (1)
11.2.1 Objective of the Chapter
142 (1)
11.3 The Role of AAT in Psychotherapy: Is There Such a Thing as an AAT Rx?
142 (1)
11.4 Consideration 1---Why Clinicians May Find Animals Therapeutically Beneficial
143 (3)
11.4.1 Animals as a Social Lubricant for Therapy
143 (1)
11.4.2 The Benefits of Animals as an Extension to a Therapist: A Method for Rapport Building
144 (1)
11.4.3 A Therapeutic Benefit of Animals in Therapy: A Catalyst for Emotion
145 (1)
11.4.4 Animals Acting as Adjuncts to Clinicians
145 (1)
11.4.5 The Use of the Relationship with Animals Vicariously---Role Modeling
146 (1)
11.5 Consideration 2---The Therapeutic Environment: Animals as an Aspect of Milieu Therapy
146 (1)
11.6 Consideration 3---Incorporating Theory into Practice: AAT from a Life Stage Perspective
147 (4)
11.6.1 Suggested Developmental Goals and Treatment Purposes for Children
148 (2)
11.6.2 Suggested Developmental Goals and Treatment Purposes for Adolescence
150 (1)
11.6.3 Suggested Developmental Goals and Treatment Purposes for Adults
150 (1)
11.6.4 Suggested Developmental Goals and Treatment Purposes for the Adults
150 (1)
11.7 Practical Suggestions for Clinician's Applying Animals
151 (1)
11.7.1 Training and Liability
151 (1)
11.7.2 Precautions for the Clients
152 (1)
11.7.3 Additional Concerns
152 (1)
11.8 Future Directions
152 (1)
11.9 Conclusions
152 (6)
References
153 (5)
12 Application of Animal-Assisted Interventions in Professional Settings: An Overview of Alternatives
Rise VanFleet
Aubrey H. Fine
Dana O'Callaghan
Teal Mackintosh
Julia Gimeno
12.1 Introduction
158 (1)
12.2 Professional Applications of AAI
158 (4)
12.2.1 AAI in Mental Health
158 (1)
12.2.2 AAI in Allied Health Professions and Education
159 (1)
12.2.3 AAI in Speech and Language Therapy
160 (1)
12.2.4 AAI in Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy
160 (1)
12.2.5 AAI in Education
161 (1)
12.3 Professional Practice Foundations
162 (17)
12.3.1 Theoretical Foundations of AAI
162 (1)
12.3.2 Competencies
162 (1)
12.3.3 Ethical Considerations and Animal Welfare
163 (1)
12.3.4 AAI in Psychotherapeutic Practice
163 (1)
12.3.5 Benefits of AAI in Psychotherapy: The Research
163 (1)
12.3.6 Forms and Techniques AAI Can Employ in Psychotherapy
164 (4)
12.3.7 Levels of Structure in AAI
168 (3)
12.3.8 Moderate Structure in AAI
171 (1)
12.3.9 Greater Structure in AAI
172 (1)
12.3.10 Goodness of Fit
173 (1)
12.3.11 Suggestions for Training and Certification
174 (1)
12.3.12 Future Directions
174 (1)
References
174 (5)
13 Animals in the Lives of Children
Gail F. Melson
Aubrey H. Fine
13.1 Introduction
179 (1)
13.2 Where Are Animals in Children's Lives?
179 (1)
13.3 What Do Animals Mean in Children's Lives?
180 (10)
13.3.1 Psychodynamic Theories
181 (2)
13.3.2 Relational and Self Psychologies
183 (1)
13.3.3 Ecological Systems Psychology
184 (4)
13.3.4 The Biophilia Hypothesis
188 (2)
13.4 Best Practices in AAT with Children
190 (1)
13.5 Guidelines for Best Practices of AAT with Children and Concluding Remarks
191 (4)
References
192 (3)
14 Animals in Educational Settings: Research and Practice
Nancy R. Gee
Aubrey H. Fine
Sabrina Schuck
14.1 Chapter Overview
195 (1)
14.2 Background on Animals in Educational Settings
195 (1)
14.3 Research: What We Know So Far ...
196 (2)
14.4 Ways in Which Animals are Incorporated into Classrooms
198 (3)
14.4.1 Humane Education
199 (1)
14.4.2 Reading Programs
200 (1)
14.4.3 Animal-Assisted Practices with Special Populations in School Settings
201 (1)
14.5 Suggested Guidelines for the Inclusion of Animals in Classrooms
201 (1)
14.6 Policy Recommendations for Animals in the Classroom
202 (2)
14.6.1 Key Element: The Student
202 (1)
14.6.2 Key Element: The Animal(s)
203 (1)
14.6.3 Key Element: The Teacher
203 (1)
14.7 Positive, Assertive, Cooperative Kids: An Application in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
204 (3)
14.7.1 How to Be a Good Teacher---An Example of Combining All Three Key Elements
205 (1)
14.7.2 Generalization
206 (1)
14.7.3 Initial Findings and Lessons Learned
206 (1)
14.8 Safety Concerns: Key Elements---Children and Animals
207 (1)
14.9 Concluding Remarks
208 (3)
References
208 (3)
15 Enhancing Special Education Environments with Animal-Assisted Interventions at Green Chimneys: Opportunities and Practical Considerations
Michael E. Kaufmann
Andrea Beetz
Miyako Kinoshita
Samuel Ross Jr.
15.1 Introduction
211 (1)
15.2 General Effects of Human--Animal Interaction
212 (1)
15.3 Theoretical Background of Positive Effects of HAI and AAI in an Educational Context
212 (1)
15.4 Animal Interaction at Green Chimneys School
213 (3)
15.4.1 The Farm Animal Teaching Barn
214 (1)
15.4.2 The Horse Barn
214 (1)
15.4.3 The Wildlife Center
215 (1)
15.4.4 Shelter Dog Socialization Program
215 (1)
15.5 Implementing Human Animal Interactions
216 (1)
15.6 Enhancing Skills and EF
216 (1)
15.7 Advantages of AAI in Special Education Settings
217 (2)
15.8 Considerations for Program Replication
219 (1)
15.9 Practical Considerations and Lessons Learned at Green Chimneys: Integrating AAI into Primary Services
220 (1)
15.10 Paying for Our Animal Program
220 (1)
15.11 A Unique Animal-Assisted Program Identity
220 (1)
15.12 Time Constraints and Making Room for Animal Programming in a School
221 (1)
15.13 Evaluating the Impact of Our Animal Programming
221 (1)
15.14 Choices in Animal Species for Special Education Settings
221 (1)
15.15 Prior to Considering Animals in an Educational Setting
222 (1)
15.16 Setting Protocols and Program Vision
222 (1)
15.17 Conclusions
222 (3)
References
223 (2)
16 The Roles of Animals for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Temple Grandin
Aubrey H. Fine
Marguerite E. O'Fiaire
Gretchen Carlisle
Christine M. Bowers
16.1 Introduction
225 (1)
16.2 Why Animals for ASD?
226 (2)
16.2.1 Animals as Social Catalysts
226 (1)
16.2.2 Animals as Stress Reducers
226 (1)
16.2.3 Animals and Sensory-Based Thinking
226 (2)
16.3 Animal-Assisted Intervention for ASD
228 (3)
16.3.1 AAI with Dogs
228 (1)
16.3.2 AAI with Horses
228 (1)
16.3.3 AAI with Other Animals
229 (1)
16.3.4 Suggestions to Consider When Choosing and Implementing AAI for ASD
229 (1)
16.3.5 Case Examples of AAI for ASD
230 (1)
16.4 Service Animals for ASD
231 (1)
16.4.1 Suggestions to Consider before Obtaining a Service Dog for ASD
232 (1)
16.5 Companion Animals for ASD
232 (1)
16.6 Animal Welfare Issues
233 (2)
16.6.1 Service Dog Welfare
233 (1)
16.6.2 Horse Welfare
234 (1)
16.6.3 Other Animal Welfare
234 (1)
16.7 Conclusions
235 (2)
References
235 (2)
17 Understanding the Role of Human--Animal Interaction in the Family Context
Megan K. Mueller
Aubrey H. Fine
Marguerite E. O'Haire
17.1 Animals in the Family System
237 (2)
17.2 Adaptive HAI in the Family System
239 (1)
17.2.1 Attachment to Animals
239 (1)
17.2.2 Prosocial Behaviors and Social Skills
239 (1)
17.2.3 Role of the Parents and Caregivers
240 (1)
17.2.4 Clinical Relevance
240 (1)
17.3 Nonadaptive HAI in the Family System
240 (2)
17.3.1 Barriers to Positive HAI
240 (1)
17.3.2 Loss of a Pet
241 (1)
17.3.3 Child and Animal Maltreatment
242 (1)
17.3.4 Clinical Relevance
242 (1)
17.4 Children with Developmental Disorders and Animals in the Family
242 (2)
17.4.1 Positive Developmental Outcomes
242 (1)
17.4.2 Barriers to Positive Outcomes
243 (1)
17.4.3 Clinical Relevance
243 (1)
17.5 Strategies for Clinical Practitioners
244 (1)
17.5.1 Using Measures to Assess the Value of HAI
245 (1)
17.6 Conclusions
245 (4)
References
245 (4)
18 Human--Animal Interaction in the Aging Boom
Rebecca Johnson
Jessica Bibbo
18.1 Introduction
249 (1)
18.2 Human--Companion Animal Interactions and Aging
249 (3)
18.2.1 Changes in the Human--Animal Bond in Older Adults
249 (1)
18.2.2 The Physiologic Influence of Companion Animals
249 (2)
18.2.3 Psychological and Emotional Influences of Companion Animals
251 (1)
18.2.4 Social Outcomes of Pet Ownership
252 (1)
18.3 Facilitating Relationships between Pets and Older Adults
252 (2)
18.3.1 "Aging in Place"
252 (1)
18.3.2 TigerPlace Pet Initiative
253 (1)
18.4 Pet Selection
254 (2)
18.4.1 Community-Dwelling Elderly Persons
254 (1)
18.4.2 Pets in Long-Term Care Facilities
255 (1)
18.5 Guidelines for Animal-Assisted Interventions with Older Adults
256 (2)
18.5.1 AAI in Retirement Residences and Nursing Homes
256 (1)
18.5.2 Activity-Based AAI for Older Adults
257 (1)
18.6 Conclusion
258 (3)
References
258 (3)
19 Increasing the Effectiveness of Palliative Care through Integrative Modalities: Conceptualizing the Roles of Animal Companions and Animal-Assisted Interventions
Perry Skeath
Molly A. Jenkins
Amy McCullough
Aubrey H. Fine
Ann Berger
19.1 Introduction
261 (1)
19.2 Extending Palliative Care through an Integrative Approach
261 (4)
19.2.1 Healing versus Curing---an Unnecessary Either/Or Dilemma
262 (1)
19.2.2 What Should Be Regarded and Treated as Chronic Pain?
263 (1)
19.2.3 A Provocative Care Structure that Works
264 (1)
19.3 The Role of Pet Companions and AAIs in Palliative Care
265 (6)
19.3.1 The Impact of Animals for Children with Chronic and Terminal Illnesses: A Focus on Childhood Cancer
266 (5)
19.3.2 The Importance of AAI Research in Palliative Care
271 (1)
19.4 Future Avenues of AAI and Palliative Care Research
271 (3)
19.4.1 A New Approach to Medical Research
271 (2)
19.4.2 Implementing a New Approach to AAI and Palliative Care Research
273 (1)
19.5 Next Steps and Concluding Remarks
274 (5)
References
275 (4)
20 Pets Bring Comfort and Health: The Evolution of the PAWS Model in San Francisco and the Safe Pet Guidelines
Ken Gorczyca
Aubrey H. Fine
20.1 Introduction
279 (2)
20.2 AIDS: An Overview
281 (1)
20.3 The Psycho-Social Impact of Illness: The AIDS Virus
282 (1)
20.4 The Role of Pets
283 (1)
20.5 The Role of Community
284 (1)
20.6 The Historical Significance of Zoonoses and AIDS
284 (2)
20.7 How PAWS Developed to Help People with AIDS Keep Their Pets
286 (1)
20.8 Services Provided by Pets are Wonderful Support
286 (4)
20.8.1 Veterinary Care
286 (1)
20.8.2 Pet Food Bank
287 (1)
20.8.3 Foster Care
288 (1)
20.8.4 In-Home Services
288 (1)
20.8.5 Case Management
288 (1)
20.8.6 Pet-Associated Zoonoses Education: Safe Pet Guidelines
288 (1)
20.8.7 Volunteers
289 (1)
20.8.8 The PAWS Externship Program
289 (1)
20.8.9 Client Advocacy Program
289 (1)
20.8.10 Emotional Support
289 (1)
20.8.11 Personal Pet Visitation
290 (1)
20.8.12 Collaborations: MOW
290 (1)
20.9 Examples of Other Human/Animal Support Service Programs
290 (2)
20.9.1 Veterinary Street Outreach Services: Homeless People and Pets
291 (1)
20.9.2 Why Veterinary Street Outreach Services?
291 (1)
20.10 A Generation Later
292 (3)
Acknowledgments
293 (1)
References
293 (2)
21 The Human--Animal Relationship in Context of the Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems
Allie Phillips
21.1 Introduction
295 (1)
21.2 Controversies
295 (1)
21.3 Therapy Animals Supporting Kids (TASK) Program
296 (3)
21.4 Therapy Animals Assisting in Juvenile Court, Family Court, and Juvenile Detention Programs
299 (1)
21.5 Therapy Animals with Vulnerable Adult Witnesses
299 (1)
21.6 Therapy Animals in Veteran's Court
300 (1)
21.7 Research
300 (1)
21.8 Laws Addressing Therapy Animal Use
301 (1)
21.8.1 More Success Stories
301 (1)
21.9 Conclusion
302 (3)
References
302 (3)
22 Treating Human Trauma with the Help of Animals: Trauma Informed Intervention for Child Maltreatment and Adult Post-Traumatic Stress
Philip Tedeschi
Meredith L. Sisa
Meg Daley Olmert
Nancy Parish-Plass
Rick Yount
22.1 Psychodynamic Animal-Assisted Psychotherapy for Effects of Interpersonal Trauma
305 (5)
22.1.1 Implications of Interpersonal Trauma
306 (1)
22.1.2 Psychodynamic AAP with Child Victims of Interpersonal Trauma---A Relational Approach to Psychotherapy Par Excellence
307 (3)
22.1.3 Summary
310 (1)
22.2 Warrior Canine Connection Service Dog Training Therapy: Clinical Foundations, Practice Guildlines, and Scientific Rationale
310 (6)
22.2.1 Introduction
310 (1)
22.2.2 Background
311 (1)
22.2.3 The Warrior Ethos---Helping Others/Helping Self
311 (1)
22.2.4 WCC: A Therapeutic Alternative for Posttraumatic Stress
312 (1)
22.2.5 Gain from Loss
313 (1)
22.2.6 Genomic and Neurobiological Basis of the Warrior Canine Connection
313 (1)
22.2.7 The Truamatized Social Brain
314 (1)
22.2.8 WCC: A Safe Non-Pharmaceutical Alternative?
314 (1)
22.2.9 The Warrior Canine Connection
315 (1)
22.2.10 The Canine Charm Offensive
315 (1)
22.2.11 Secondary PTSD
316 (1)
22.2.12 Summary
316 (1)
22.3 Conclusion
316 (5)
References
317 (4)
23 On Call 24/7---The Emerging Roles of Service and Support Animals
Philip Tedeschi
Jennifer A. Pearson
Dan Bayly
Aubrey H. Fine
23.1 Introduction
321 (1)
23.2 History of Assistance Animals
321 (1)
23.3 Therapeutic Benefits of Contact with Animals: The Possible Psychosocial Benefits of Service Animals
322 (1)
23.4 Definitions of Assistance Animals: Controversy, Confusion, and Clarification
322 (1)
23.5 Psychiatric Service Animals
323 (3)
23.5.1 Areas of Concern with PSDs
325 (1)
23.6 Emotional Support Animals
326 (1)
23.6.1 At a Glance---The ADA and FHA
327 (1)
23.7 Case Study--ESA/Service Animal Confusion
327 (1)
23.8 Americans with Disabilities Act Guidelines for Transportation and the Federal Air Carriers Act
327 (1)
23.8.1 Summary and Distinguishing Criteria for Each Type of Assistance Animal
328 (1)
23.9 Service Animal Selection and Training
328 (3)
23.9.1 Selection of Service Animals
328 (1)
23.9.2 Training Service Animals
329 (2)
23.10 Animal Welfare Considerations: Service Work Impact on the Animal
331 (2)
References
331 (2)
24 Animal Visitation Programs in Colleges and Universities: An Efficient Model for Reducing Student Stress
Molly K. Crossman
Alan E. Kazdin
24.1 Introduction
333 (1)
24.2 Overview: Characteristics and Strengths of AVPs
333 (1)
24.3 Supporting Evidence
334 (1)
24.4 Research Agenda
334 (1)
24.5 Summary and Conclusion
335 (6)
References
336 (5)
Part IV Special Topics and Concerns in Animal-Assisted Interventions
25 Loss of a Therapy Animal: Assessment and Healing
Susan P. Cohen
25.1 Introduction
341 (1)
25.1.1 Definitions
342 (1)
25.2 Scholarly Research
342 (3)
25.2.1 Therapeutic Animals
344 (1)
25.2.2 Background of Animal Loss as a Field of Study and Practice
344 (1)
25.3 Understanding Loss
345 (1)
25.4 Loss of a Special Animal
345 (2)
25.4.1 Loss of a Pet
345 (1)
25.4.2 Role of the Animal
346 (1)
25.5 Manner of Loss
347 (1)
25.5.1 Life Experiences (Nine Stories)
347 (1)
25.6 Differences between Losing Pet and Therapy Animal
348 (9)
25.6.1 Type of Relationship
349 (1)
25.6.2 Surviving Loss
350 (1)
25.6.3 Case Examples
350 (1)
25.6.4 Pet Loss Experts
351 (1)
References
352 (5)
26 Our Ethical and Moral Responsibility: Ensuring the Welfare of Therapy Animals
Zenithson Ng
Julia Albright
Aubrey H. Fine
Jose Peralta
26.1 Introduction
357 (1)
26.1.1 An Overview of Changes in the Field of AAI
357 (1)
26.2 Defining Animal Welfare
358 (3)
26.2.1 Beyond the Five Freedoms: An Alternative Ethical Methodology
360 (1)
26.3 Benefits to Animals in AAI
361 (1)
26.3.1 Social Benefits
361 (1)
26.3.2 Physiologic Benefits
361 (1)
26.3.3 Behavioral Benefits
362 (1)
26.4 Measuring Welfare in AAI Research
362 (3)
26.4.1 Cortisol
362 (1)
26.4.2 Behavior
363 (1)
26.4.3 Correlating Physiology and Behavior
364 (1)
26.4.4 Other Measures of Animal Welfare
365 (1)
26.5 Research Applications
365 (1)
26.6 Practical Applications
366 (5)
26.6.1 Eligibility
366 (1)
26.6.2 Medical Screening
367 (1)
26.6.3 Behavioral Evaluation
367 (1)
26.6.4 Handler Training
368 (2)
26.6.5 Animal-Assisted Intervention Monitoring
370 (1)
26.6.6 Other Species
370 (1)
26.7 Conclusions
371 (7)
Appendix 1 Behavioral Instrument for the Assessment of Dog Well-Being before/during/after Therapy Sessions
371 (2)
Acknowledgments
373 (1)
References
373 (5)
27 Methodological Standards and Strategies for Establishing the Evidence Base of Animal-Assisted Therapies
Alan E. Kazdin
27.1 Context: Current Advances in Psychotherapy Outcome Research
378 (1)
27.2 Conceptualizing the Study and Its Focus
379 (3)
27.2.1 Small Theory: The Investigator's View of Animal-Assisted Treatments
379 (1)
27.2.2 Questions to Guide Animal-Assisted Treatments
380 (2)
27.2.3 Control and Comparison Conditions
382 (1)
27.3 Common Methodological Challenges
382 (6)
27.3.1 Conceptual Issues
382 (2)
27.3.2 Sampling Issues
384 (1)
27.3.3 Design and Procedural Issues
385 (1)
27.3.4 Outcome Assessment
386 (1)
27.3.5 General Comments
387 (1)
27.4 Conclusions
388 (3)
Acknowledgments
389 (1)
References
389 (2)
28 A Glimpse at the Future of Animal-Assisted Interventions: Selected Commentaries
28.1 The Future Status of the Emerging Field of Anthrozoology
Dennis C. Turner
28.1.1 Introduction: Emergence of the Field
391 (1)
28.1.2 Key Organizations
391 (1)
28.1.2.1 International Association of Human--Animal Interaction Organizations
391 (1)
28.1.2.2 International Society for Anthrozoology
392 (1)
28.1.2.3 European Society for Animal Assisted Therapy
392 (1)
28.1.2.4 International Society for Animal-Assisted Therapy
392 (1)
28.1.3 Unanswered Questions
393 (1)
28.1.3.1 Basic Research Questions
393 (1)
28.1.3.2 Applied Research Questions
394 (1)
28.1.4 The Way Forward
395 (1)
References
395 (2)
28.2 Public Policy and the Human--Animal Bond
Andrew N. Rowan
28.2.1 Introduction
397 (1)
28.2.2 Growth in the Animal Protection Movement
397 (1)
28.2.3 Growth in Companion Animal Numbers and Veterinary Practice Income
398 (1)
28.2.4 Other Trend Measures
398 (2)
28.2.5 Policy Aspects of the HAB
400 (1)
References
401 (1)
28.3 The Research Challenge: Threats to the Validity of Animal-Assisted Therapy Studies and Suggestions for Improvement
Harold Herzog
28.3.1 How Good Is the Evidence that AAT Works?
402 (1)
28.3.1.1 The Replication Crisis in Science
403 (1)
28.3.1.2 The File Drawer Problem
403 (1)
28.3.1.3 Samples Size and Effect Size Problems
404 (1)
28.3.1.4 Spinning Research Results
404 (1)
28.3.1.5 Researcher Bias
404 (1)
28.3.2 Increasing the Quality of AAT Efficacy Studies
405 (1)
28.3.2.1 The Good News: AAT Research Is Improving
405 (1)
References
406 (2)
28.4 Strengthening the Foundation of Human--Animal Interaction Research: Recent Developments in a Rapidly--Growing Field
Sandra McCune
Katherine A. Kruger
James A. Griffin
Layla Esposito
Lisa S. Freund
Regina Bures
Karyl J. Hurley
Nancy R. Gee
28.4.1 Introduction: A Call to Action
408 (1)
28.4.2 Answering the Call
408 (1)
28.4.2.1 Methodological Rigor and Study Design
409 (1)
28.4.2.2 Characterizing Connections between Humans and Animals
409 (1)
28.4.3 Renewing the Call
410 (1)
28.4.3.1 Building Multidisciplinary Teams
410 (1)
28.4.3.2 Ensuring the Welfare of Participants
410 (1)
28.4.3.3 Standardization and Validation of Measures
411 (1)
28.4.3.4 Incorporating New Technologies
411 (1)
28.4.3.5 Adapting to National and Global Population Change
411 (1)
28.4.3.6 Meeting the Needs of Aging Populations
412 (1)
28.4.3.7 Meeting the Needs of Special Populations
412 (1)
28.4.4 A Promising Future
412 (1)
References
413 (6)
The IAHAIO Definitions for Animal-Assisted Intervention and Guidelines for Wellness of Animals Involved
Dr Brinda Jegatheesan
Dr Andrea Beetz
Dr Elizabeth Ormerod
Dr Rebecca Johnson
Dr Aubrey H. Fine
Keiko Yamazaki
Christi Dudzik
Dr Rita Maria Garcia
Melissa Winkle
Dr George Choi
Index 419


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